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Metacognition refers to higher order thinking that
involves active control over the thinking processes involved in
learning. Activities such
as planning how to approach a given learning task, monitoring
comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the completion of a task
are metacognitive in nature. Because metacognition plays a critical role
in successful learning it is important for both students and teachers.
Metacognition has been linked with intelligence and
it has been shown that those with greater metacognitive abilities tend
to be more successful thinkers.
Metacognition has been linked with intelligence and it has been shown that those with greater metacognitive abilities tend to be more successful thinkers.
Most definitions of metacognition include both knowledge and strategy components. Knowledge is considered to be metacognitive if it is actively used in a strategic manner to ensure that a goal is met. Metacognition is often referred to as "thinking about thinking" and can be used to help students “learn how to learn.” Cognitive strategies are used to help achieve a particular goal while metacognitive strategies are used to ensure that the goal has been reached.
Metacognitive knowledge involves executive monitoring processes
directed at the acquisition of information about thinking
processes. They involve decisions that help
Metacognitive knowledge involves executive monitoring processes directed at the acquisition of information about thinking processes. They involve decisions that help
Metacognitive strategies involve executive regulation processes directed at the regulation of the course of thinking. They involve decisions that help
Livingston, J. (1997) Metacognition: An Overview State Univ. of New York at Buffalo: http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/fas/shuell/cep564/Metacog.htm
Hacker, D. J. Metacognition: Definitions and Empirical Foundations The University of Memphis: http://www.psyc.memphis.edu/trg/meta.htm
METACOGNITION consists of three basic elements:
Before - When you are developing the plan of action, ask yourself:
During - When you are maintaining/monitoring the plan of action, ask yourself:
After - When you are evaluating the plan of action ask yourself:
Excerpted from Strategic Teaching and Reading Project Guidebook. (1995, NCREL, rev. ed.).
More information and research:
Learning to Learn - Metacognition
Some tools for metacognition:
Using cognitive organisers - network and concept maps
Scientific Critical Thinking
Egan's Thinking Levels
Some on-line tests to assist metacognition ...
Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire
Perceptual Modality preference Survey --- Institute for Learning Styles Research
Interpersonal Communication Skills Test
Multiple Intelligences Test -2
Learning to Learn
Last updated: September 20, 2004